Think Manures

Organic manures (slurry, FYM or poultry manure) are a valuable on-farm resource. They provide nutrients in the form of N, P and K that could reduce your bagged fertiliser requirements, reducing costs.  They also contain organic matter that will improve the condition of your soil and help crop growth and performance.

The material on these pages comes from a variety of sources, including Think Manures, RB209, Nutrient Management guides, and current research on ammonia mitigation methods and alternative methods of spreading manures.  This will allow you to take account of what nutrients are in your manures and plan applications accordingly to minimise losses to the environment and maximise economic value.


Interested in looking at the different types of organic manures which can be used to save money on bagged fertilisers well as improving soil organic matter? Click here to read the Nutrient Wise Demo Factsheet.

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NVZs Key dates and figures

Record requirements

Dates you need to know

Organic manure N field limit

Livestock manure N farm limit

Storage and spreading

Closed periods for spreading

N Max limits

Developed by the Environment Agency in association with Creedy Associates, correct as of April 2013.

Soil for Profit

Record requirements

Where appropriate you should have already:

  • Started keeping records
  • Recorded farm size
  • Calculated manure storage capacity
  • Completed a risk map

By 1st Jan 2012:

  • Provide manure storage capacity
  • Follow the closed periods
  • Stop high trajectory slurry spreading


  • N maximum for grass falls to 300kg N per ha
  • N efficiency for livestock manure increases

Annual Dates you need to know

1st Jan
Start of period for assessing the livestock manure N farm limit
Start planning applications of N to permanent grassland

15th Jan
End of closed period for spreading:

  • organic manures on soils other than shallow or sandy
  • manufactured N fertiliser

End Feb
End of restrictions on applying organic manure:

  • 150kg N/ha limit for registered organic producers
  • 50m/ha of slurry and 8t/ha poultry manure limit per single application

30th April
From 2010 in existing NVZs, 2011 for new NVZs deadline for:

  • records of livestock kept in previous year and storage period
  • calculation of the N produced

1st Aug
Start of closed period for spreading organic manure to tillage land with shallow or sandy soils (unless crop is sown by 15th Sept)

1st Sept
Start of closed period for spreading:

  • organic manure to grassland on shallow or sandy soils
  • manufactured N fertiliser on tillage land

15th Sept
Start of closed period for spreading:

  • organic manure to tillage land with shallow or sandy soils where crop is sown by 15th Sept
  • manufactured N fertiliser on grassland

1st Oct
Start of closed period for spreading organic manure to tillage land with soils other than shallow or sandy

15th Oct
Start of closed period for spreading organic manure to grassland with soils other than shallow or sandy

31st Dec
End of closed period for spreading organic manure to shallow or sandy soils.

Organic manure N field limit

  • Limit of 250kg N/ ha in 12 months
  • Only applied to livestock manure spread to land and other organic manures such as sewage sludge, compost or abattoir waste

Please click here to find out application rates or N content of other manure types, or click here to read more about field applications.

Livestock manure N farm limit

  • Limit of 170kg N/ha per calendar year
  • Only applies to manure from pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, deer, horses, and poultry
  • A derogation to 250kg N /ha can be applied for on farms with grazing livestock and at least 80% grassland
  • For more information please click here.

Storage and spreading of organic manures

  • Only high readily available N livestock manures need to be stored (such as slurry and poultry manure, not FYM)
  • 5 months storage for cattle (Oct-Feb)
  • 6 months storage for pigs and poultry (Oct-Mar)
  • Do not spread:
    • within 50m of a spring or borehole
    • within 10m of a watercourse or ditch
    • on waterlogged, frozen, snow covered or flooded land
  • Avoid spreading if there is a risk of pollution. Think about slope, ground cover, weather, soil type and land drains. Refer to your risk map

For more information on storage please click here, and for spreading click here.

Closed periods for spreading

Closed periods for high readily available N organic manures

Closed periods for manufactured N fertiliser

Crops to which manufactured N can be applied in the closed period

N Max limits

  • only applied to N from manufactured fertiliser and crop-available N from livestock manure

For more information please click here.

Does my Slurry Store need planning permission?

Created by Susan Watters, Development Manager (West) Cornwall Council Planning.

Does my Slurry Store need planning permission?

Fertiliser Value

  • Fertiliser value of manures is influenced by manure type, DM content, application timing and technique, soil type and weather patterns
  • These factors will also influence N availability to the next crop grown
  • Cultivation using discs and tines is less likely to be effective than ploughing in minimising ammonia losses

Soil mineral N

  • When there is uncertainty about the level of residual mineral N present in the soil such as following long term manure use of where manures have been applied at unknown rates, sampling for soil mineral N (SMN) is recommended
  • SMN results will enable top up inorganic fertiliser N additions to be calculated for the next crop grown

Phosphate and potash

  • Manures are valuable sources of plant available P and K although short term availability can be lower than from water soluble P and K fertilisers
  • Where crop responses to P and K are expected or when responsive crops such as potatoes are grown, the available P and K content of the manure should be used to estimate manure P and K supply and any additional need for inorganic P and K fertiliser additions
  • Where P and K applications are for the maintenance of soil reserves, the total P and K content of the manure should be used. For most arable crops, typical manure application rates will supply all the P and K the crop needs
  • Over the crop rotation, manure P and K should be considered the same as inorganic P and K fertiliser in balance sheet calculations
  • At soil P index 3 or above, care is needed to ensure that the total phosphate inputs in organic manures do not exceed that removed in crops during the rotation

Key messages

  • Know the nutrient content of applied manures
  • Apply manures evenly at known rates
  • Rapidly incorporate manures, where appropriate or use an application technique that will minimise ammonia losses
  • Apply manures in spring where possible to reduce nitrate leaching losses
  • Take the nutrient supply from manures into account when calculating inorganic fertiliser additions

What are farmers doing?

  • Around 62% of holdings have a nutrient management plan (compared to 55% in 2009)
  • In 2011 23% of nutrient management plans were created by the farmer without professional advice, 49% were created between the farmer and a professional advisor, and 27% were created solely by a consultant. Of those who consulted someone, in 80% of cases advice was sought from fertiliser advisors or agronomists
  • Of those who have had a Nutrient Management Plan, 43% have seen a financial benefit, while 30% have seen an environmental benefit
  • 67% of holdings have a Nutrient Management Plan for their farm, a similar percentage to that seen in 2009. 65% of holdings update this every year
  • Over half of holdings calculate nutrient content of manure, whilst 22% test nutrient content by taking samples. 70% of holdings test the nutrient content of their soil regularly (at least every 5 years)
  • The region with the highest proportion of farmers who have plans is the East of England and the lowest proportion of holdings is the North East region
  • Taken from Defra Farm Practises Survey results source - http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/defra-stats-foodfarm-environ-fps-FPS2011-110801.pdf

What are farmers doing?

  • 83% of holdings spreading N based fertiliser on grassland or crops own at least 1 fertiliser spreader others use contractors
  • The Average age of fertiliser spreaders is 8 years old
  • Half of holdings gave their spreader a general check more than once a year
  • 27% check and calibrate the spread pattern of the spreader more than once a year, 56% check and correct for fertiliser type more than once per year
  • Grassland 52% of holdings spread their own fertiliser with 12% spread by contractor, and 37% spreading none at all. In arable systems 48% of holdings had fertiliser spreaders, 13% used contractors and 39% were not spreading fertiliser
  • Taken from Defra Farm Practises Survey results source - http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/defra-stats-foodfarm-environ-fps-FPS2011-110801.pdf

What are farmers doing?

  • Two thirds of farmers can store solid manure in temporary heaps in fields while almost half have storage facilities for solid manure on a solid base
  • Most popular storage facility for slurry is the tank with 18% of holdings having these stores
  • Of those who have facilities to store manure of slurry, no more than 15% of these are covered
  • Average age of storage facilities is 15 years old
  • Approximately 14% of farmers plan to enlarge, upgrade or reconstruct their storage facilities and of these 42% plan to make these changes in the next 12 months
  • 3% of farms have a slurry separator
  • 14% export manure or slurry off their farm (of which 89% is manure to a neighbouring farm and 16% export slurry to neighbouring farms.
  • Taken from Defra Farm Practises Survey results source - http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/defra-stats-foodfarm-environ-fps-FPS2011-110801.pdf



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The NVZ regulations form part of the Nitrates Directive, an EC law aimed at reducing the amount of N entering the watercourse as a result of agricultural related operations. Certain farming operations on livestock farms within the designated NVZ areas will be governed by the regulations. These include being able to demonstrate adequate slurry storage capacity relative to livestock enterprise size and type and restrictions over the times of year when slurry and farm animal waste can be applied to land.

For more information on NVZs and to download good practice guides please click here, or to complete the NVZ self assessment tool to assess your farming practises against the requirements of legislation please click here.

Catchment Sensitive Farming

CSF aims to reduce the level of diffuse pollution in rivers, groundwater, and other aquatic habitats caused by farming operations. Catchment Sensitive Farming delivers practical solutions and targeted support to enable farmers and land managers to take voluntary actions to reduce diffuse water pollution from agriculture to protect water bodies and the environment.

For more information on the grant scheme, events, guidance notes, and locations of catchments please click here, or if you are in a catchment and you would like more information about your local officer and how to get involved, please click here.

Soils for Profit

The Soils for Profit project looks at delivering on farm practical advice to help farmers make the most of their manures and nutrients. If you are interested in receiving a free visit please visit the Soils for Profit page.

Tried and Tested

The Tried and Tested Nutrient Management Plan helps make nutrient management planning and recording practical and simple for your farm. The system deals with planning fertiliser and manure use, meeting regulatory demands and protecting the environment.

For more information please click here.

RB209 The Fertiliser Manual

Using the fertiliser manual will help farmers and land managers better assess fertiliser requirements for the range of crops grown by suggesting what level of nutrients are required to provide the best financial return for the farm business.

To access RB209 please click here.


A nutrient management software tool that is freely available for farmers to use. It allows for field level record keeping, recommendations allowing for organic manure nutrients, and nutrient application plans.

To access PLANET please click here.


Organic manures are a valuable source of plant available nitrogen (N). However, using either too much or too little N can adversely affect crop yields and quality. By integrating manure and inorganic fertiliser N additions, crop yields and quality will be optimised and pollution risks reduced.

MANNER is a decision support system that can be used to accurately predict the fertiliser nitrogen value of organic manures on a field specific basis. MANNER has been developed using results from the latest research, funded by DEFRA, on organic manure utilisation on agricultural land.

To access MANNER please click here.

Slurry Storage

For regulations on slurry storage developed by the Environment Agency, including the capacity, design and construction requirements and good practise guidelines please click here.

For information on the regulations concerning spreading slurries and manures on land please click here.

Slurry Wizard

Developed by Dairy Co, the main aim of the Slurry Wizard is to identify whether there is adequate slurry storage and to allow for different strategies to be explored.

The wizard has three key components; to calculate the existing slurry capacity; to calculate the existing slurry production; and the production of a report to look at the monthly production compared to the existing storage.

For more information or to order your copy please click here.